KP is undergoing a demographic transition which will create a “youth bulge” – a phenomenon considered to be one-time window of opportunity for a nation’s economic development. In an effort to reap benefits of this transition, the author looks into critical questions related to human capital development and labor market, analyses the current situation of KP skills sector and proposes provincial technical and vocational education and training (TVET) strategy for a way forward in view of the present situation.
Rabea Malik and Faisal Bari
This study posits that the challenges in education sector are too great for the State to address on its own. Thus, PPPs in education offer a set of powerful tools for involving the non-state sector for triggering improvements in state schools. Despite the potential of partnerships to generate insights for education sector reform, there is little or no systematic evidence available for Pakistan to inform policy debate about the relative merits of alternative service delivery mechanisms. Therefore, this study assesses the contribution of the Partnership for Management (PfMs) mechanism towards addressing access, quality and governance challenges. The study asks if PfMs or adopted schools can improve outcomes for state sector schools. Findings suggest considerable improvements in access, quality and governance indicators in PfM schools.
This study responds to a request by the department of education, government of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KPK), Pakistan, to assess how the incentive structure for teachers and administrators can be improved to enhance student learning. The study will make recommendations based on findings from the national and international literature and analysis of data available in KP followed up by focus group discussions with department officials, administrators and teachers in the province. High performing schools will be identified to draw insights into the learning process and apply those to low performing schools. An assessment of the statutory rules will be made using this framework, regarding incentives to identify the core rules that would affect absenteeism and therefore learning outcomes.
The author provides an overview of the education policies and initiatives that have been introduced in Punjab and discusses whether they have been successful in curbing the problems that the education sector faces. According to the author, the challenge of education reforms is to efficiently implement an investment program to support a high-quality education system suited to local demand and employment opportunities. She provides a framework to assess the initiatives that have taken place. This includes demand and supply side constraints. On the demand side, poverty remains an overwhelming constraint to school attendance in Punjab. Schooling quality, school location, and teacher presence affect parents’ decision to send their children to school. Important supply issues include appropriate and high-quality curricula, the presence and effectiveness of teachers, and efficient school management. Using this framework to assess the major interventions carried out, the author emphasizes on how past initiatives in education were driven by expenditure on school infrastructure with limited evaluation of results. While recent reform programs have incorporated lessons from past failures such as the SAP, and are aiming to build better monitoring and governance structures that include student assessments, a better evaluation of past policies is needed as they are implemented.
Ali Cheema and Farooq Naseer
This paper provides rigorous evidence on the long-run inequality in opportunities in rural Punjab. For this purpose Sargodha provides an excellent context in which to analyze intergenerational mobility by providing micro-evidence, using regression analysis on the relationship between historic inequality and intergenerational mobility—an under-researched area in the literature. The findings of this paper show that while impressive gains have been made by the propertied in terms of school transitions, households at the bottom of the historic social hierarchy continue to have extremely low rates of transition to school in spite of increased provision of schools in the district’s villages. The outcome is that households whose ancestors were at the bottom of the village hierarchy have fallen a generation behind in terms of educational attainment compared to groups at the top and in the middle.What is extremely worrying is that a significant proportion of households in the nonpropertied group have had zero change in educational attainment across three generations. The fact that this stagnation is occurring in villages with schools suggests that it is these households’ demand for education that is the most serious challenge to the government’s stated aim of universalizing education.
The authors carry out an impact evaluation to determine the composite impact of a PPP that seeks to modify the classroom environment. This PPP is between Federal Directorate of Education (FDE) and Children’s Resource International (CRI) Pakistan, a non-profit training and education organization. Transforming classrooms to be ‘child-friendly’ encompasses a number of inputs including teacher training, improving family literacy and encouraging family involvement in the classrooms, and providing material inputs. The study compares learning outcomes and attendance among children in CRI Program schools with similar children in non- Program schools using propensity score matching. The results indicate a positive and significant effect of child- friendly classrooms on learning; the combined effect across three subjects; English, Urdu and Maths, is found to lead to an improvement of up to 11 percentile in class ranking. Overall, the results present a contrasting picture to previous analyses that examine non-didactic learning approaches and child learning outcomes in a developing country context. However, the cost effectiveness of this intervention must be considered. While this intervention is less costly compared to some ICT interventions, it is costly compared to camera based monitoring or hiring remedial teachers.