Pakistan’s children have some of the poorest health outcomes in South Asia. An estimated eight percent die before the age of five, 44 percent have stunted growth and a third of them are underweight. Pakistan’s large primary care system has not effectively prevented this because the main determinants of health status – sanitation, education, income, and quality healthcare – have not been sufficiently dealt with. Uzma Afzal, Usman Ghaus and Jeffrey Hammer argue that current surveys are missing vital information on these determinants for designing sound health policies. They identify the gaps, and offer recommendations for how these surveys can improve.