Cities

Overcoming Barriers to Women's Mobility

Kate Vyborny, Erica Field, Ghulam Abbas Anjum and Fizzah Sajjad

A household survey and focus group interviews in Lahore on women's experiences and preferences in public transport serve as a guide for public policy choices that can increase women's access to employment and services and normalise their presence in public life.

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Water Pricing to Promote Equity, Efficiency and Sustainable Development in the Growing City of Faisalabad

Sheharyar Nabi

Faisalabad is a rapidly growing industrial hub in Pakistan's Punjab province. As its population grows, its water distribution systems become increasingly stressed, leaving the poorest citizens vulnerable. This brief, based on a report titled "Water Pricing to Promote Equity, Efficiency and Sustainable Development in the Growing City of Faisalabad, Pakistan", explains how water price and household incomes influence water consumption in Faisalabad. It shows that while both factors - in addition to other external influences - have a substantive impact on water demand, the price of water has a relatively small effect. Based on these findings, the brief offers policy recommendations for making water access sustainable and equitable.

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Emerging Urbanisation Trends: The Case of Karachi

Arif Hasan

Karachi has the fastest growing population in the world. From illegal immigrants to informal settlements to the financial importance of being near the city when living in the province of Sindh, Karachi has a density reaching far pass its bylaws and has negative impact on the environment, housing, and social life. In order to get on the path for urban development, Karachi applied "direct foreign investment" and the World Class city vision, which includes plans for iconic buildings and high-rise apartments. However, this just increased the rich-poor class divide and evicted many poor neighborhoods. The paper discusses a possible reform agenda that would include regulations such as a minimum of settlers in an area, protection of certain parts of the environment, and designated areas for low-income houses.

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Addressing Urbanization Challenges

Umair JavedHusnain Fateh and Sohaib Athar

Pakistan has South Asia’s highest proportion of urban residents. By 2030, an expected 50 percent of Pakistanis will live in cities, up from the current 40 percent. Given Pakistan’s level of urbanization, the economy could be performing much better. However, Pakistani cities are expanding without sufficient planning, leading to poor infrastructure, inefficient public services and unaffordable housing.

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Making Cities Work for Development

Tony Venables

This policy brief analyses the potential of cities in the developing world and discusses the negative impact of poor public services, weak infrastructure, and institutional and legal obstacles to private investment. The author discusses the interventions required to achieve the potential of cities making this brief a useful resource for policymakers formulating urban plans and new infrastructure systems.

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Contagion, Crime, and Congestion: Overcoming the Downsides of Density

Edward Glaeser and Helen Dempster

This policy brief discusses the issues that come with urbanization such as contagion, crime, and congestion. However, this does not imply that growth of cities should be limited in developing countries. Instead efforts should be made to understand and mange the challenges of densely populated cities. In fact, upward mobility; the potential of urbanization to lift people out of poverty by delivering higher earnings and a better quality of life, especially when compared with the rural alternative, must be encouraged.

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Metropolitan Lahore – Economic Geography, Labor Markets and Growth

Anjum Altaf

Research has shown that a doubling of the size of the labour market, other things remaining the same, leads to a statistically significant increase in output per worker. This positive outcome is due to the increased density of population, which leads to a higher number of economic interactions per unit of area, a characteristic of well-functioning cities. In this study, Lahore is examined in this light, keeping in mind the critical role of mobility, which affects the size of the labour market. Furthermore, fragmentation that causes a city to function below its economic potential, which translates into a lower standard of living for its residents, is investigated.The first order impact on the labour market of an infrastructure investment like the recent Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) is also estimated.

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Population growth, Internal Migration, and Urbanisation in Tanzania – Phase 2

Hugh Wenban Smith

The aim of this study was to make use of the migration and urbanisation propensities obtained from the study to shed light on what is driving migration and urbanisation in Tanzania, thereby providing a stronger evidential basis for policies affecting internal migration and urbanisation. Specifically, the study investigates how regions with high rural out-migration differ from those with low rural out-migration, appealing to as much relevant information at regional level as was found; similarly, it investigates how regions with high urban in-migration differ from those with low urban in-migration, again by reference to supporting data. These investigations have been carried out for each inter-censal period and have considered how far these differences can be linked to national developments such as villagisation (1970s), SAP policies (1980s) and mining (1990s).

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Infrastructure and Well-being: Employment Effects of Jamuna Bridge in Bangladesh

Minhaj Mahmud and Yasuyuki Sawada

This study particularly focuses on the structures of poverty reduction effects, of a large infrastructure, such as job transformation and non-farm employments particularly focusing on the impact of Jamuna multipurpose bridge (JMB) on labour market integration. The authors used data collected by BRAC-Research and Evaluation Division (Ghosh et al., 2010). The study findings will inform policy makers on broader impacts of physical infrastructure on well-being; using insights from the findings, policy makers will be able to formulate evidence based policies on local infrastructure, transport and communication.

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Connecting the Red Corridor: Infrastructure Provision in Conflict Zones

Jacob Shapiro and Oliver Vanden Eynde

This project studies how the implementation of rural infrastructure projects has affected the intensity of Maoist violence in India’s so-called “Red Corridor.” The authors also investigate the determinants of the successful completion of rural infrastructure projects in regions affected by Maoist violence. Over the past five to ten years, a set of ambitious rural development programmes have attempted to address the challenges of the “Red Corridor” under the umbrella of the “Bharat Nirman” plan. Authors study the complex interactions between different levels of government to determine the political determinants of successful infrastructure provision.

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Urbanization of Everybody and Social Sustainability

Hasan H. Karrar and Mohammad Qadeer

This paper focuses on the ushering of the urban habitat in a spatial-ecological rubric as urbanization envelops the majority of Pakistanis. By the census definition, 36% of the population lives in cities, towns and other designated urban places. This unorganized form of urbanization resulting from the implosion of population, joined with the growth of cities and towns, has produced mega-urban regions where the countryside is dotted with villages, suburbs, homesteads and factories, centred around cities and towns, the merger of ruralopolis with megalopolis. The ecological impacts of urbanization bring about a change in the landscape and settlement pattern, usually resulting in sprawled development across the countryside with urgent needs but at the cost of lower quality of life breeding urban crisis. The report discusses five institutional imperatives of urbanisation that have to be met to address the issue.

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Urban Transportation, Land Use and Growth: Evidence from China 1995- 2010

Vernon Henderson, Nathaniel Baum-Snow, Loren Brandt, Matthew Turner, and Qinghua Zhang

This research intends to study the impacts of urban highway and rail infrastructure investments on city population, employment, and GDP growth/ urban form including the spread of developed land by use/ environmental outcomes, and urban land use patterns across residential, commercial, mixed, and industrial categories, as well as higher versus lower order uses within categories. China presents an ideal case study for researching these questions as there is considerable variation across cities in the prevalence of highway and rail transit investment.

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Community Involvement in Public Goods Provision: Evidence from a Field Experiment in Ghana

Thomas F. Walker

This study tests the willingness of community members to donate to public infrastructure in four rural communities in Ghana. Using detailed data on the participants and their social networks, it examines the characteristics of those individuals who donate the most, and explore the linkage between donations, the social network and status in the community. This study shows that community-level fundraising can be an effective tool in augmenting existing funds for public goods, and identifies ways of increasing the funds raised.

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