Yoong Lee, L. (2011). Affiliated colleges in South Asia: is quality expansion possible? South Asia Human Development Sector, 47. World Bank
This report provides a broad overview of the common features and challenges found in the affiliated colleges system in four South Asian countries i.e. Pakistan, India, Bangladesh and Nepal. It also suggests possible reform measures to improve the tertiary education sector in each country. According to the report, the affiliated model is widely regarded as the “weakest link” in the higher education sector.The combination of weak supervisory and monitoring capabilities in the affiliating universities and government authorities has resulted in a downward quality spiral. The recommendations of the report focus on four pillars around which reforms would help improve the current low standards. For the college, it suggests fostering growth and capacity building of the existing colleges and “graduate” ready institutions to academically autonomous institutions. For the affiliating universities, it emphasizes on strengthening the effective quality monitoring of affiliating Universities and their services to the colleges. In terms of what the government can do, it recommends reforms that increase capacity of the regulatory and quality assurance agencies. Overall, it stresses on the need to enhance transparency to increase information disclosures to increase accountability.
PAKISTAN:Country Summary of Higher Education. World Bank.
This report provides an overview on Pakistan’s Higher Education focusing on what the system constitutes of and what different policy reforms are ongoing or need further attention. According to the report the higher education sector is predominantly public in nature, with public Higher Education Institutions (HEIs) dominating both the university/DAI and College sectors. The Higher Education Commission (HEC) is an autonomous apex body responsible for allocating public funds from the federal government to universities and DAIs and accrediting their degree programs. Colleges are funded and regulated by provincial governments, but follow the curriculum of the HEC funded universities/DAIs with which they are affiliated. However, the higher education sector was severely neglected until the 2000s, when the government established an ongoing major policy reform program outlined in the Medium-Term Development Framework (MTDF) 2005- 2010 prepared by the HEC. Yet, further reforms are needed on issues of quality in terms of qualified staff as well as in terms of access particularly for girls. There is also a need to align the programs to the needs of the labour market and reform governance to ensure accountability.
Sector Review: Higher Education Department. Government of Punjab.
This departmental sector review (DSR) puts forth a situation analysis of the Higher Education Sector in Punjab. The review addresses the challenges faced by the Higher Education Sector and presents a set of recommendations to augment the linkages between policy objectives, budget formulation and expenditure patterns of Higher Education for MTBF 2010-13. Keeping in line with these priority areas the evaluation of the budget and expenditure trends of last three years of Higher Education Department Punjab reveal a number of issues; foremost the percentage share of Higher Education in total education budget has not been consistent and in fact has been scaled down. Furthermore, according to the review, there is a need to shift the department’s focus from access to quality, which has to be substantiated, by a number of tangible measures. In this regard it is imperative that the share of higher education budget be increased from 30% to 40% of the total education budget. Within the higher education budget new budget heads for curriculum development, research and development and human resource development need to be developed with dedicated budget lines. Above all, the review emphasizes on how it is crucial to align the budgetary allocations as well as utilization trends annually in line with the MTBF targets.