Situation analysis of the education sector. 2012. UNESCO.
This report gives an overview of different aspects of Pakistan’s education system. It provides a situation analysis not only through the lens of different sectors but also through the lens of all provinces. According to the report, the most striking feature of Pakistan’s education system is its inherent inequalities. Later these basic inequalities translate into inequalities of opportunities of jobs and salaries and quality and standards of life. The key issues in education are somewhat similar across levels of education, mainly low access and poor quality of education. Every province faces almost all the key challenges, with some degree of variance. Moreover, these challenges are inter-related. They include large stock of out of school children and poor quality of education, which is interlinked with financial constraints due to low allocation of the budget. There is also weak coordination among international development partners leading to duplication of efforts and focus only on primary education. Furthermore, there is limited institutional capacity in provincial education departments as well as lack of supervision and monitoring. The recent need for effective response in emergencies has additionally burdened the sector’s resources. Public-private partnership, a possible solution to these challenges has however, turned out to be ineffective. Thus, strong and urgent measures are required in these areas to overcome the challenges.
Mustafa, G. (2012). Education Policy Analysis Report of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa.UNESCO.
This education policy analysis does a comprehensive review of all the sectors in education from pre-primary till tertiary levels along with vocational, non-formal, special education sectors. The analysis also looks at the progress of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa over EFA and MDG goals, public sector education budget and donors’ financial assistance. The implementation of National Education Policy 2009 in KP is also looked at in detail. According to the report, the education policy of KP can be understood through its various development projects, governance structure and developments over the implementation of national education policy. In wake of 18th Constitutional Amendment the Education Department is repositioning itself to undertake additional responsibilities. Moreover, some prominent recent education development projects in KP financed by donors are also playing an important role. They aim to improve governance, numeracy, female literacy and quality of education across various sectors in the public education system. The major recommendations of the report are also in line with these areas. They focus on Early Childhood Education, technical education, improving quality by reducing teacher absenteeism and improving governance through Parent-Teacher councils. There is also emphasis on improving gender disparity by increasing schools for only girls.
Lynd, D. (2007). The Education System in Pakistan.UNESCO
This paper was commissioned by UNESCO Pakistan. It describes Pakistan’s education system through a series of highlights drawn mainly from published data released by the Academy of Education Planning and Management. The data used is taken primarily from the National Education Census (NEC) and the National Education Management Information System (NEMIS), 2005/06. Some of the fundamentals it emphasizes on includes how under current conditions, the education system does not provide for a substantial percentage of students to move beyond the primary level. Also how vacant teaching posts and untrained teachers both affect the quality of education provided to Pakistan’s youth. According to the NEC, most teachers in the public school system had received professional training. However, by comparison, over half of the teachers in private schools had received no professional training.Analysis of the NEC also shows that many schools are in need of better facilities to improve the teaching environment.It also highlights the disparity in favour of boys prevalent at all levels of basic education, with the exception of the higher secondary level, where there is parity between the sexes. Thus, this report provides a comprehensive overview of the statistics and in essence the issues that the education sector faces.