Khan, A. A., Khan, A., &Bokhari, A. (2010).The HIV epidemic in Pakistan.Journal of Pakistan Medical Association, 60(4), 300-307.
This review describes the risks, prevalence and transmission potential of HIV among various population subgroups and the national response to the epidemic in Pakistan. It interprets the available data to explain Pakistan’s HIV scenario in terms of the roles of different population sub-groups and contextual factors that may influence the epidemic progression. According to the review, the HIV epidemic in Pakistan is well-established and expanding among Injection Drug Users (IDUs), Male Sex Workers (MSWs) and expatriated migrant workers. For the time being, the general population, may be more at risk from the over-use of unwarranted therapeutic injections with used equipment than from sex. However, once the epidemic reaches a critical threshold in FSWs and spouses of IDUs or sex workers it may spread to the general population. Thus, successful HIV prevention interventions should be epidemic-stage-specific and have scale and scope to reach most of the target populations with protective services. Current programmes provide social services, behaviour change counselling, condoms and syringes. Voluntary counselling and testing (VCT) has now been added. However, these interventions must address bridging groups. For now, truckers are the only bridge group receiving services and surveillance data does not capture any other bridge group.